The journey to Ellis Island, the New York immigration reception point from 1892, usually began with receipt of a pre-paid ticket from a family member already settled in America. Those that could afford to buy their fare themselves were small in number. Steerage fares between 1880 and the start of World War 1 held fairly steady at 4-5 which was equal to half the annual income of a labourer.
With the cost of passage secured, the next stage in the journey to Ellis Island was getting to the port of departure. Towards the end of the 19th century, some 90% of all Irish emigrants made the sea crossing in iron hulled steam ships.
These were big, with a capital B, compared with the sailing ships that had transported earlier waves of emigrants, and they needed deep water ports, so most of the 'trade' in transatlantic crossings departed from Liverpool in England and then made stops in Queenstown (Co Cork) or Londonderry.
Although there were other routes to Liverpool, the majority of emigrants travelled via Dublin's Kingstown port (now renamed Dun Laoghaire). This port had had its own rail line to Dublin since 1834 and had been connected to the main network since 1856.
From here, mail, livestock and cargo ships offered deck passage across the Irish Sea, a notoriously fickle stretch of water.
By 1896 the shortest sea crossing, to Holyhead on Anglesey, took under 3 hours, while the steamer to Liverpool took four. In foul weather, the journey could be twice as long.
In 1911, some 80 ships crossed from Kingstown to Britain every week, most of them crammed with migrants. Some already had onward tickets; others planned to save their fare while working in England. No passenger lists were made.
Very few who arrived in Liverpool could go direct to a waiting ship. They were usually told to arrive in the city two days before sailing. Typically, they had to find themselves a place to stay, visit the emigration agents or ship brokers agency, and make sure all was in order for their departure.
The boarding houses had a reputation for being pretty awful, and the huge bustling city held many dangers for unwitting and unworldly emigrants. All sorts of scams abounded such as charging exhorbitant fees for storing luggage, or overcharging for accommodation.
By the turn of the century, these problems were fewer because the steamship companies started to look after their passengers and limited their exposure to these potential dangers. They were met on arrival and taken to boarding houses and hostels that were either affiliated or owned by the steamship lines.
Unfortunately there are no records of which properties the shipping companies owned, nor are there records of who stayed where (except those who were in port on census nights, of course.... see link box below). Passports or other state documentation was not required for emigrants from Britain and Ireland at this time.
Passengers and their luggage were collected from their accommodation on the day of departure (or the evening before, depending on tides) and taken to the quay where they either boarded their ship or were carried by boat to their ship waiting in the estuary.
By the end of the 19th century, the biggest transatlantic liners made their journey to Ellis Island with 1900 people onboard. About 500 would be employees and about 1100 would be steerage passengers. The rest were 'cabin class' passengers.
Steerage had historically been a dark, noisy, smelly, stuffy deck of large bunk dormitories. There was little or no privacy, and access to open deck was limited. From 1895, 'closed' berths began to appear in steerage, and offered some privacy. By the outbreak of WW1, 30-50% of tickets were for this 'New Steerage' arrangement.
Another big change to standards of passage had been the introduction of 2nd class tickets. Known as 2nd Cabin passengers, immigrants were offered improved food (and four meals a day instead of three as in Steerage), improved ventilation and more space. It was a much better option, and came to be recognised as good value, especially by families and single women.
From 1880 to 1897, 2nd class made up just 5% of passengers. From 1898 to 1913 it made up 11% of those making the journey to Ellis Island. Fares averaged 8 (against 5 for Steerage), and was the preferred choice of many Irish-born Americans who had made their first crossing in Steerage; having enjoyed some success in the United States, they were prepared to pay the extra when returning permanently or temporarily to/from Ireland.
For first-class passengers, the journey to Ellis
Island was an opulent and luxurious experience. Grand Saloons, flamboyant
ballrooms and top-quality dining were available to those who could afford the
25 fare. Most of the ship's 500 staff were assigned to cater to the cares and
whims of this group.
In the sailing ships of the middle 19th century, the crossing to America or Canada took up to 12 weeks. By the end of the century the journey to Ellis Island was just 7 to 10 days. By 1911 the shortest passage, made in summer, was down to 5 days; the longest was 9 days. With conditions having improved (although they were by no means extremely comfortable for those in steerage), the transatlantic crossing was no longer seen as a one-time ordeal.
So as the ships entered New York harbour, and the Statue of Liberty came into view, passengers probably felt less trepidation and more simple excitement. The journey to Ellis Island still had a few hours to run for most, however.
The steamship would dock at either the Hudson or East River piers to disembark its first and second class passengers.
The better-off simply passed through Customs at the pier and were free to go.
For Third-class or Steerage passengers, the final part of their passage was made by ferry or barge to Ellis Island where, in the Great Hall, they had to undergo three to five hours of medical and legal inspections. (Since both inspections were fairly cursory, this period was largely spent waiting to be called forward.) The legal inspection involved checking the immigrant's identity against the ship's manifest which had been prepared by the shipping company before departure in Ireland/England.
They were then free to enter the United States and to begin their new life.
The records of the 51million people who made the journey to Ellis Island from 1892 to 1957 have survived and are available online and free at www.libertyellisfoundation.org.